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I find it strange that only Cox Email account in Outlook is asking for Password, and Hotmail and Gmail do not and are setup in Outlook too.
This happens every few weeks and then stops and then in a few days or weeks starts again. It never happens to Hotmail or Gmail accounts, so it not a Outlook configuration issue, or a internet connection issue. I have been in IT for over 30 years and these type of issue are almost all ways on the server side, not the client side when other configured Email accounts do not have the same isues.
I've seen the same thing. Seems to be a problem with the Cox servers (and not your password as KevinM2 suggests). Sometimes closing/reopening Outlook helps. As you said, it usually fixes itself. It's been a problem for many years.